The U.S. population grew by 0.79% last year, just slightly faster than the previous year’s growth rate but still among the slowest rates in decades.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the number of Americans living in metropolitan areas rose to 275.3 million in 2015, an increase of 2.5 million. While urban areas on the whole are growing, the population of several metro areas shrank last year. Over the last five years, the populations of 23 metros declined by more than 2%. By contrast, the U.S. population increased by 3.9% over that time.
Source: Interview with 24/7 Wall St., William Frey, senior demographer at public policy think tank Brookings Institution.
Like a number of other shrinking cities, especially those in Illinois and other parts of the rust belt, Kankakee’s unemployment rate of 8.7% is one of the highest in the country. The weak job market may be partially a symptom of the city’s decaying industrial base. Like a number of other shrinking U.S. cities, Kankakee’s economy is relatively dependent on manufacturing. The sector employs 13.4% of the area’s workforce, higher than the national proportion.
Unlike the nation as a whole and most U.S. metro areas, the number of deaths in the Anniston areas exceeded the population increase from new births over the past five years. As in other shrinking cities, Anniston area residents are not especially wealthy, which could be a sign of the economic weaknesses that push out current residents and fail to attract new ones. The average resident earns $32,753, nearly the lowest per capita income nationwide.
More than 20% of workers in Rockford is employed in the manufacturing sector, double the national percentage. Like other cities in the rust belt, Rockford ’s dependence on manufacturing is typical, as is the ensuing urban decay and population loss. Rockford’s jobless rate of 8.5% is far higher than the national rate of 4.9%.
There were close to 10,000 deaths reported in Wheeling over the past five years. The level of mortality in an area rarely outweighs the population growth from births. In Wheeling, however, new births contributed just 7,839 to the population. Like only a few other metro areas, the natural decline contributes more to the city’s population loss than migration.
With per capita income of $51,812, Ocean City residents are exceptionally wealthy compared to people in other shrinking cities. However, the area’s unemployment rate of 13.6% is one of the highest in the country. Ocean City residents are also relatively old — 24% of people in the area are 65 or older, well above the nationwide share of 14.5%.
The number of people living in the Albany, Georgia metro area declined by 2.6% over the last five years. As in other shrinking cities, Albany residents are not especially wealthy, which could be a sign of the economic weaknesses that push out current residents and fail to attract new ones. The average annual income of $33,692 in Albany is far lower than the national per capita income of $47,615.
Births usually contribute more to population change than deaths, even in the nation’s shrinking cities. In Pittsfield, however, this was not the case in the last five years. While 7,434 area residents died over that period, new births added only 5,865 new residents over that time. The deaths were a relatively large driver of the overall population decline. Pittsfield’s population is older compared to most U.S. areas. More than one in every five Pittsfield residents is 65 or older.
The number of deaths over the last five years in the Youngstown-Warren-Boardman area exceeds the number of residents added from new births over that period, one of relatively few U.S. metro areas where the natural population growth — deaths minus births — was negative. The fastest shrinking metro areas tend to have higher shares of older residents, while the opposite is true for expanding metro populations. In Youngstown, 19.4% of residents are 65 or older, one of the highest proportions nationwide.
Charleson’s relatively high violent crime and unemployment rates may partially explain its recent exodus as well as its lack of appeal to prospective residents. Roughly 500 violent crimes per 100,000 residents are reported annually, well above the national violent crime rate of 366 per 100,000 people. The area’s jobless rate of 6.9% is also higher than the national unemployment rate of 4.9%.
Like a number of other shrinking cities, Danville’s economy has suffered from a long-term decline of the area’s once vibrant industrial sector. With falling wages, the area has become increasingly less appealing to Americans seeking to relocate. Nearly 3,000 more people departed from Danville than arrived over the last five years. Manufacturing jobs still account for 18.2% of the workforce, considerably higher than the nationwide share of 10.3% who work in the sector.
North Carolina is not considered part of the rust belt, but like many economically depressed areas in the rust belt, Rocky Mount is relatively dependent on its manufacturing sector. The industry employs 15.6% of area workers, well above the national proportion of 10.3% who work in the sector. The once vibrant industrial base has been eroding for many years, and dependence on manufacturing often goes hand in hand with high unemployment and population loss. In Rocky Mount, 8% of the workforce is unemployed, one of the higher jobless rates in the country.
The Weirton-Steubenville area is one of only a few U.S. urban regions where the natural population decline — changes due to births and deaths — was greater than the decline attributable to migration. Over the last five years, 875 more people left than arrived to the Weirton area, a relatively small population loss due to migration. Natural events, by contrast, drove down the population by nearly 3,000 people. This could be tied to the relatively older population. Of metro area residents, 19.2% are 65 or older, one of the highest such shares in the country.
Of the 20 fastest shrinking U.S. cities, Decatur is one of four in Illinois. Like other Midwestern metro areas, Decatur’s once vibrant industrial sector has been on the decline. The area’s long-term economic struggles drove urban decay and population loss. Decatur’s unemployment rate of 8.7% — one of the highest nationwide — reflects the area’s economic weakness. On the other hand, the city’s per capita annual income of $43,413, while lower than the national income level, is one of the higher figures compared with other shrinking cities.
One of the signs of a healthy city’s economy is a fast growing, young population. In Cumberland, more people left than arrived and more people died than were born over the last five years. Also, nearly one in every five residents are 65 or older, one of the highest proportions of any U.S. metro area.
Michigan was once a major U.S. manufacturing hub, with many cities depending on the industry. Today, many Michigan cities have fallen into decay. Saginaw is no different. Residents have relatively low incomes, earning $34,050 annually, well below the national per capita income of $47,615. A byproduct of the economic decline, low incomes are common in the nation’s shrinking cities.
Nearly 20,000 more people left than arrived to Flint over the last five years, driving the area’s population loss of 3.3%. The area’s once robust manufacturing industry is no longer attracting the employers, or the young, prospective employees indicative of a healthy economy. The industry employs 16.2% of the city’s workforce, one of the highest percentages.
Over the last five years, the number of people living in the Sierra Vista-Douglas area shrank by nearly 5%, the fourth worst decline in the country. Many parts of Arizona, which was hit especially hard during the housing crisis, still have weak economies. In the Sierra Vista-Douglas area, 6.6% of the workforce is unemployed, one of the highest annual unemployment rates nationwide. The rate is down considerably from previous years, however.
Like in only a few U.S. metro areas, there were more deaths than births over the last five years in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. However, it was outward migration that drove the area’s population decline of 4.9% over that period. Nearly 5,000 more people left Johnstown than arrived in the last five years. Johnstown is part of the rust belt — areas once heavily dependent on manufacturing.
Pine Bluff’s violent crime rate of 685 incidents per 100,000 residents — nearly the highest of U.S. metro areas — likely deters prospective residents and has likely contributed to the region’s exodus. Over the last five years, 7,062 more people left the area than arrived. This accounted for the entirety of Pine Bluff’s 6.4% population decrease. Area residents are also not wealthy. Pine Bluff’s per capita income of $30,986 is nearly the lowest of all U.S. metros.
Farmington’s population shrank by 8.8% over the last five years, faster than any other metro in the country. As is common in the nation’s shrinking cities, Farmington has a relatively high violent crime rate and relatively low incomes. There are approximately 535 violent crimes per 100,000 area residents, well above the national rate of 366 incidents per 100,000 people. The area’s annual per capita income of $36,197 is also well below the $47,615 income of the average American.
By Thomas C. Frohlich